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GREEK EDUCATION                          13

by the desire for military efficiency. From birth to death, the
daily life of both children and adults was as rigorous as the life
of the camp. The boys had to go barefoot in all weathers, and
were clad in a single garment. Their food was coarse and their
beds hard, as befitted those who were to spend their lives in
fighting. Every day they were kept busy at work at gymnastic
exercises and outdoor pursuits like swimming and hunting, and
nothing was left undone to make them strong and hardy. From
their infancy they were under constant supervision. When the
boys left their mothers' care at seven, they were herded together
in local " packs " and '* companies," similar to those in which
their fathers were grouped for war, and were subjected to very
strict discipline under a heirarchy of officers. The bravest and
most resourceful boy in the " pack " was appointed leader, and
acted as a kind of non-commissioned officer, The trailing of the
pack was entrusted to an Eiren, a young man between twenty
and thirty who had not long completed this part of his own
education. Over him again was a State inspector called the
Paidonomus, endowed with a large measure of authority and
assisted by attendants with the ominous name of Whip-bearers*
Every adult citizen, moreover, took a keen interest in the occupa-
tions of the boys, and was ready to reprove and to chastise them
in the absence of the usual officials. The boys for their part
were encouraged to take all their beatings with a good grace as
a training in hardiness. It was part of their preparation for the
supreme test of their powers of endurance, when as ephebi they
submitted themselves to the ordeal by flogging on the great altar
in the sanctuary of Artemis, and the pr&e was awarded to the
lad who could endure the greatest number of stripes without
flinching or uttering a sound. It is little wonder that, as Xenophon
remarks," a spirit of discipline and obedience prevailed at Sparta,**
or that the youths " walked along the streets with their hands
folded in their cloaks, proceeding in silence, looking neither to
the right hand nor to the left, but with their eyes modestly ibced
upon the ground*"* The effect of this repressive discipline was
evident in the whole bearing of the Spartans, Alone in a land
of lighthearted people, they were stern and unbending in their
manners* Their taciturnity, indeed, was a byword among the
rest of the Greeks, who while ready enough to admit their
* TfaLwwtawman State* Itt*